The bean is a legume with a high protein value that is grown in all types of soils, but it is of high yield in areas with well-drained substrates rich in organic matter.
Its production occurs in areas with temperatures in the range of 18 to 34 °C; above 35 °C its development is impaired and below 10 °C the plant does not germinate. With regard to water supply, it grows very well with rainfall between 300 and 450 millimeters throughout its cultivation period.
It is a short cycle plant whose development time between sowing and harvest is 90 to 110 days. For this reason, it is important when you decide to start planting beans , to be clear about how to do it efficiently, since decisions in the face of different events that arise must be quick.
For this reason, we invite you to read this article and learn a series of tips for planting. The idea is that you have them at hand and put them into practice on your plot in order to achieve better results.
Good practices for sowing beans
The average yield of the bean crop is 1,500 to 3,000 kilograms per hectare. But this figure can be increased if good planting practices are followed, such as those explained below:
cure the seeds
In the process prior to planting the bean, it is essential to cure the seed to control whitefly infestation. In addition, there are other pests that require rapid intervention with agricultural defensive substances such as weevils, caterpillars and white mites.
Also, it is necessary to control other diseases that are transmitted by the seed such as common bacteriosis, web blight and angular spot, the latter two caused by the action of fungi.
In bean production, yield losses due to poor phytosanitary management prior to planting can reach 40%.
Sow quality seeds
Choosing optimal quality seeds is essential for the good development of the plants and the increase in the final yield. The use of poor quality grains affects bean production, causing reductions of between 15% and 25%.
The type of bean to choose is also important, since there are different varieties: white, black and red. Each of these are affected by different diseases and have different yields per planted unit.
It is important to know that, in beans, most diseases are transmitted through the seed. Without a good selection and treatment of it, no matter how many technological advances you apply later in the management of production, it will be very difficult to obtain better yields. In bean planting , the seed is considered the most relevant technological innovation.
Perform a couple implantation
Planting in lots is done in rows at a distance of approximately 52 centimeters and a depth of 5 to 6 centimeters, in the zone of soil moisture.
An even implantation will not leave “holes” for weeds and offers plants an environment less conducive to attack by pests. Good spatial distribution is essential for plant health.
Do not delay planting
Beans are planted during the first days of summer (January-February). If you delay it, you will reach the season of low temperatures and possible frosts before the harvest, and the legume will not withstand this type of climatic event.
Strengthen the crop
To achieve good root growth and a strong structure in the trunk and stems, it is necessary to apply a fertilizer in the vegetative stage of the plant. This is recommended in the first 20 days, when the size of each individual is defined.
Under ideal temperature and humidity conditions, bean plants grow exuberantly. This is sometimes a problem, since the plant itself shades and the flowers below do not develop. It is necessary when the plant is born to apply treatment to control that it does not go “vice”, in unproductive stems and leaves,
Broadleaf weeds and grasses must be eliminated with the application of specific agricultural pesticides.
Weed growth is more important if you have uneven plant growth that leaves empty patches. One of the main causes of this phenomenon is implanting poor quality seeds.
Apply technology for monitoring
Currently, agricultural technology allows real-time mapping of your production, knowing the state of the soil, efficiently managing irrigation and automating processes.
Use all these advances from the moment the bean is planted to carry out comprehensive monitoring and intervene early in the event of events that harm the plants.
An alternative crop with high nutritional value
Bean consumption in the world stands at an annual average of 2.5 kilograms per inhabitant and is especially important in the countries of Asia and Africa. In Argentina it is located at approximately 200 grams per inhabitant and per year, so that more than 90% of its production is destined for export.
However, it is necessary to know that, to sell to international markets, quality standards must be the best. Therefore, bean planting must be done with good practices and applying the necessary technological innovations.
The production of legumes, including beans, is emerging as a good alternative to traditional crops, since they are agricultural products with high demand in the world due to their high nutritional value.